Renihan on human liberty

It is a “dependent liberty.” “The liberty of second causes is not an absolute liberty, but a dependent, relative, or subordinate liberty. The liberty of second causes does not consist in an indifference to, or capacity to act or not act independently of, God’s decree. Rather, the creature’s liberty depends on God’s decree.”

It is a “correspondent liberty.” “The liberty of second causes corresponds to, or fits with, their being and nature. God has made creatures in such a way that they are able to act in a manner corresponding to the measure of their being… We live and act within the limits of the way in which God created us. God has made us able to think, evaluate, and decide. To do so, we use our intellect, or faculty of understanding. So, we cannot act beyond the reach of our capacities or faculties, whether physical or intellectual.”

It is a “concurrent liberty.” “Men act freely in accordance with the scope of their volition, and that God sovereignly accomplishes his purposes through all that they do. The first cause concurs with second causes… Men make plans, but God fulfills his own will through their actions. This is not a “zero-sum game” between the Creator and creatures. Man acts freely, and God sovereignly brings his will to pass. This is the concurrence, or concursus, of the first cause with second causes.”

– Samuel D. Renihan, Deity and Decree